Temporal weapons are, as their name implies, weapons affecting time. They are expressly outlawed by the Colonials for just concerns about their wide-ranging, uncontrollable effects (Classic Battlestar Galactica Vol. 2 #1).
Yahrens into their exodus, Adama resorts to the use of a temporal weapon designed by Zee, called the "time warper," in the face of certain destruction by an overwhelming force of Cylon basestars. The weapon's temporal battery aboard Galactica destabilizes during the assault, causing the creation of an alternate reality where Galactica never existed (Classic Battlestar Galactica Vol. 2 #1 & #3).
Warriors in Temporal Vipers housing the time warper, Apollo and Starbuck, are temporally displaced in aforesaid reality (Classic Battlestar Galactica Vol. 2 #2). From the capture of Starbuck's Viper, a treacherous version of Zee reverse-engineers weapons and a propulsion drive based upon temporal principles, outfitting them aboard Baltifer's basestar (Classic Battlestar Galactica Vol. 2 #4).
The temporal warper is an offensive weapon, capable of displacing a target's existence from the time stream, effectively rendering them in a state of having never existed at all. This has the ripple-effect of affecting other outcomes.
A temporal battery harnessing temporal energy is constructed and used by Zee in order to charge the temporal warper weapons of the two Temporal Viper prototypes. It destabilizes due to the intense damage Galactica incurs during the Nebula Ambush to unpredictable results (Classic Battlestar Galactica Vol. 2 #1).
The chronal cannon is a large-scale weapon installed aboard Baltifer's basestar, and is the only known cannon of its type in existence.
Temporal Warp Drive
An instantaneous FTL drive is also reverse-engineered by Zee, and dubbed the temporal warp drive. It literally punches a hole in space and allows a ship to appear anywhere, without the need for waiting between destination points. While not a direct weapon in its own right, it is derived from the principles of the temporal warper, thus permitting Baltifer's basestar to follow the incongruous Galactica, commanded by Captain Starbuck (alongside a temporally displaced Starbuck), and inopportunely appears above Cache (Classic Battlestar Galactica Vol. 2 #4).