Sexuality in the Twelve Colonies (RDM)
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According to comments from Michael Taylor, the Colonials do not make an emphasis "of the distinction between hetero- and homosexual preferences. I tend to think that in this respect, at least, they’re a bit more enlightened than we are."
Gender Identity and Distinctions
No gender-based restrictions on occupation, either military or civilian, have been seen to exist in the Twelve Colonies, and Ronald Moore has indicated that there are none. However, males and females adhere to different standards in terms of clothing, makeup, ornamentation and hairstyling. One example has been seen of a transvestite, a man called Cerberus who wears "female" garb, jewelry and makeup; he is referred to as a "freak" by Joseph Adama (CAP: "Ghosts in the Machine").
In marriages between only one man and only one woman, there are examples of both partners retaining their surnames (ex. Anastasia Dualla and Lee Adama) and of the woman taking the surname of her husband (ex. Sharon Agathon and Karl Agathon). However, the common surname of the Willow group marriage derives from one of its female members, Desiree Willow. The standard practice for two-person homosexual marriages is unclear, as the only one shown so far is that between Samuel Adama and Larry, the latter of whom is only referred to by his first name. It is unknown whether the surname a person used before marriage is referred to as a "maiden name" by the Colonials.
A concept of "manliness" exists, as evidenced by William Adama's sayings "a man isn't a man until he wears the wings of a Viper pilot" and "a man takes responsibility for his actions". If an equivalent idea of "womanliness" as a strong attribute exists, it has not been referenced (TRS: Miniseries, "Water").
Tauron boys are known to be considered men at the age of 13 and receive a Mark of Manhood. No equivalent tradition has been mentioned for girls, although women fulfill the same roles in Tauron society as men do (ex. Isabelle Adama as a Ha'la'tha resistance member, Kolibri as a Herac soldier, Ruth as a hitwoman, Fidelia Fazekas as the Guatrau) (CAP: "Gravedancing", "Dirteaters", "Here Be Dragons", "Apotheosis").
In the Colonial military, the honorific "sir" is used for both female and male superiors; in civilian usage, "ma'am" is used for women and "sir" for men. This is highlighted when Captain Lee Adama addresses President Laura Roslin as "sir" and her aide Billy Keikeya addresses her as "ma'am" at the same meeting (TRS: "Bastille Day").
Relationships depicted in the series tend to be overwhelmingly heterosexual in nature. Amongst these relationships are:
The revelation of the Cain-Inviere relationship does not seem to surprise Pegasus personnel. Kendra Shaw is slightly shocked, but more due to the surprise that Cain is dependent on anyone. Jurgen Belzen and Jack Fisk do not seem to be at all fazed or uncomfortable with this relationship during the formal dinner after the Fall of the Scorpion Fleet Shipyards (Razor). Therefore, this is in keeping with writer Michael Taylor's comments that "the point about Cain’s and Gina’s relationship is that the fact that they had a same-sex relationship was no big deal".
Sam Adama casually mentions to his nephew Willie Adama that he used to try to flirt with men in a district the two are visiting (Rebirth). Sam's marriage to Larry, taken with his status as an enforcer for the Ha'la'tha, suggests homosexuality is not seen as in conflict with traditional masculine roles and attitudes.
Judging by comments made by producer/writer Jane Espenson and on Serge's Twitter account, homophobia does not exist and never has existed in the Twelve Colonies, and heterosexual and homosexual relationships are not thought of in different lights. Therefore, the word "gay" does not exist and homosexual marriage has been legal for as long as marriage has existed.
Bisexuality has not been seen until "Hero", with the culmination of a ménage à trois between Caprica Six, Number Three, and Gaius Baltar. It is uncertain how this is viewed in Colonial society, but since it is apparent that the Cylons model their behavior after their human creators, it is more than likely that sexual acts involving multiple partners is derived from Colonials.
Also, Gina Inviere can be considered bisexual due to her involvement with both Helena Cain and Gaius Baltar (at different times), though her relationship with Baltar is marred by the psychological effects of Inviere having been gang-raped on Pegasus.
In the webisode series The Face of the Enemy Felix Gaeta is revealed to be in a relationship with Louis Hoshi. Flashbacks to New Caprica also show him being involved with a Number Eight. Gaeta's sexuality had been teased early on behind the scenes, notably with the Season 3 gag reel where Alessandro Juliani attempts to hit on a marine protecting James Callis's Gaius Baltar, and later appears to be having a sexual dream about "Gaius".
In an interview, Ronald D. Moore stated that the bisexuality of Caprica Six and Inviere may or may not be typical of all the Six copies, or all the twelve Cylon models: "We sort of always talked about the Cylons being basically bisexual in all formats. They didn’t really have gender roles within the twelve models kind of thing, but we never really played that idea out so I don’t know if we ever really established that as part of the mythos, but that was something we sort of talked about. We pretty much established that some of the Sixes, there was the Six that was in a relationship with Admiral Cain so we know that that’s part of some of the Sixes, whether that means that applies to all the Six models, we just never got into that depth, that kind of detailed stories of them." 
Moore also said that "We’re in the process now of starting to think about what Caprica the series will be and what the storylines are and it is something that we’re talking about in our sort of nascent writers’ room where we have some people together and we’re just talking about what it could be and we are talking about it as an active thing, like okay, how can we work in gay, lesbian and bisexual storylines into this and that – it’s just not there yet, but it is part of the discussion."
Inter-racial and Inter-species
Although there are periodic mentions of prejudice between the quasi-castes of different colonies, no dialogue has indicated any taboo among Colonials regarding relationships between humans of different [real-world] ethnic or racial groups, nor even an acknowledgement of real-world ethnicity; each of the twelve colonies appears to be composed of a mixture of real-world human ethnicities.
In addition to the many inter-racial and inter-ethnic relationships not resulting in marriage (well, confirmed marriage), a full one half of the post-apocalypse marriages depicted are between spouses of different real-world races: African Anastasia Dualla and Caucasian Leland Adama, and Korean Sharon Agathon (née Eight) and Caucasian Karl Agathon (cf Kara Thrace and Samuel Anders, and Callandra Tyrol (née Henderson) and Galen Tyrol [all four appear predominantly Caucasian]). Moreover, interbreeding between what would be real-world Caucasians and East Asians is presumably so commonplace that Dr. Cottle had a still-born Eurasian infant readilly available, to secretly switch with Hera Agathon on President Roslin's order.
Humans and humanoid Cylons can and frequently do engage in consensual sexual intercourse. Relationships between humans and Cylons are viewed negatively by those who see Cylons as nonpersons, a viewpoint which becomes less and less common.
Cylon Simon and human Giana O'Neill were married before the apocalypse, with Giana unaware of her husband's Cylon nature but Simon well aware. Three of the four post-apocalypse marriages depicted are between humans and Cylons: Cylon Sharon Agathon and human Karl Agathon, human Kara Thrace and Cylon Samuel Anders, and human Callandra Tyrol (née Henderson) and Cylon Galen Tyrol. Of the three, the Agathons were the only marriage entered into while both (or either) spouse was consciously aware that one was a Cylon. The only post-apocalypse marriage shown between humans is that of Anastasia Dualla and Leland Adama. The only pre-apocalypse marriage depicted as surviving both the Cylons and Adm. Cain is that between Final Five Cylons Ellen Tigh and Saul Tigh.
Heterosexual fellatio among Colonials is implied by Laura Roslin's statement to Tory Foster, "I don't really care if you have to spend the night on your knees praying, or just on your knees. I want a name." (TRS: "Guess What's Coming to Dinner?")