Computers in the Re-imagined Series
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Technologies such as computers have been mostly bane and less of a blessing to the Colonials of the Twelve Colonies, despite the obvious conveniences that technology brings. It was computer technology that led to the creation of the Cylons for household to warfare use. These intelligent machines rebelled. To counter their creation's ability to hack into computers, the Colonial defenses, particularly the first battlestars, used computers but did not network them to all but eliminate Cylon infiltration.
Over 40 years after that first Cylon War and with the Cylons apparently long gone, the Colonials slowly returned to technological conveniences. When the Cylons began planning a second war against the Colonials, they chose to infiltrate the Colonial military through yet another program installed throughout fighters and battlestars that was designed to add more convenience: the Command Navigation Program. This program, thanks to Cylon agents disguised as humans who infiltrated Colonial life and sought out people who had access to Colonial computer defense technologies, contained a "backdoor" that allow the Cylon forces to damage or disable any Colonial vessel with this program. Only non-networked ships (such as most civilian ships or Galactica herself) or those with comparatively primitive computers (such as the Viper Mark II) are all-but-immune to the new Cylon menace.
As he tours Galactica, Doral comments that her computers "hardly deserve the name" (Miniseries, Night 1). Ronald Moore has stated that the computers are actually less powerful than those of contemporary Earth .
Colonial Civilian and Government Computers
Viper Flight Simulators
Data discs are used to transfer amounts of data between separate computers.
The Cylon are a cybernetic race. As such, everything is computer-based by nature. To avoid confusion between differentiation of the cybernetic physiology of the humanoid Cylon, only the non-sentient or quasi-sentient computer systems of the basestar are noted here.
The Hybrid is a special variety of non-autonomous humanoid Cylon that rests in a pool of water near or in a basestar's command and control center. Because of its connection to many, if not all, of the basestar's systems, it in effect is the basestar. Functions such as Cylon Centurion and Cylon Raider access and deployment appear to be controlled by the Hybrid, as well as navigation control. Whether there is more than one Hybrid model is unknown.
The datastream is the central network within a basestar. It appears to use a liquid as a data transmission medium, a storage medium, or both. The datastream is suceptible to corruption by certain organic pathogens that can also infect the sentient humanoid Cylons. The liquid also appears as waterfalls and pools within a basestar's command and control center, which may also serve as access nodes (see Data port interfaces below).
Data port interfaces
While not computers in themselves, humanoid Cylons, which are more biological than cybernetic, have devised a remarkable manner to interface with computer systems with an optical interface. On a basestar, Cylons can access their datastream by placing their arm on an illuminated panel that's covered by a thin layer of liquid. This activates the data port, an optical interface incorporated within their arms that's otherwise disguised as ordinary human tissues. These interfaces are transceivers that can also be configured for visual data such as photography.
A battlestar has several computers dedicated to many critical ship functions. Several specific computers have been mentioned or seen during the series. This list is not inclusive; an original battlestar like Galactica is still a very complex spacecraft. On advanced battlestars such as Pegasus, the highly networked computers theoretically allow the crew to control any system from any location, if one possesses the correct passwords (Razor). However, it is likely that after the Fall of the Twelve Colonies, Pegasus is not as strongly networked as before, in order to create similar defenses against Cylon intrusion as its predecessors.
Although the battlestar normally does not have a central computer network in place, Galactica does possess a gateway, which, in Galactica's case, is likely managed within the mainframe itself and not as a larger network topology. The mainframe's normally-isolated gateway can be linked to the other computers (as Gaeta does in "Scattered").
Also known as the "NAV" or "NAVCON" computer, it tracks the battlestar's position and handles sublight travel and RCS translations. It is very likely that DRADIS sensor information is obtained and managed by the Navigation Computer then passed on to the Tactical Officer and the Command & Control Center in the CIC.
The DRADIS system, while having digital controls, is an analog instrument (utilizing EM radiation), which protects it from direct external infiltration by Cylon electronic attack. As shown in "Flight of the Phoenix", the navigation computer hardware, as with practically every other computer system, is subceptible to internal compromise by Cylon viruses or logic bombs already present in the battlestar's other systems.
The FTL computer manages the complex calculations necessary for an FTL jump. Information for these jumps on a more advanced battlestar such as Pegasus are probably transmitted from the Navigation Computer by the battlestar's network.
On Galactica, however, the FTL computer receives the spatial coordinates manually from the Tactical Officer or its Communications Officer. The FTL computer also manages the star fixes of the jump coordinates to compensate for inertial drift that naturally occurs over time. The Tactical Officer generates a series of emergency jump coordinates for the Fleet with the FTL computer. This information is relayed to other ships regularly. It is likely that the flight pods are also controlled through the FTL computer as they must be retracted prior to a jump.
Damage Control Computer
The Damage Control computer relays information to the CIC on malfunctioning or damaged areas of the battlestar, presumably from various sensors throughout the ship. It also has access to radiation sensors in the event of nuclear attack to warn against dangerous radiation levels that could harm the crew. The DC computer's function can be compromised by a hostile force through places such as Aft Damage Control, as was threatened in "Valley of Darkness". If these locations are compromised, the computer's safeties can be overridden and various life-support controls, such as bulkheads and atmospheric controls, could be altered, venting the ship's air (and crew) into space.
Fire Control Computer
The Fire Control computer manages a battlestar's primary offensive weapons, the central flak turret and smaller port and starboard turrets along the length of each side of the ship. It is presumed that the Fire Control computers report to crewmembers responsible for the upkeep of ammunition on the guns when to reload an particular turret. The Fire Control computer can target individual bogeys with the flak turret guns, which, in tandem with the smaller turrets, make even Galactica, an old original battlestar from the first Cylon War, a formidable foe to encounter. Like the DC computer, there are control rooms on Galactica where the ship's computerized gun control can be overriden.
This computer likely manages secondary functions of the ship, such as communications. The mainframe likely provides extra calculating power for other ship tasks when required, and may also serve as the ship's library for tactical information. Of all the computers on Galactica, this computer is likely very resistant by design to infiltration since it controls communication traffic (and thus is accessible to Cylon external intrusion by wireless). The mainframe likely possesses a basic gateway, but, per Galactica's no-networks edict, it is typically unused.
The communications elements of the mainframe, while having digital controls, are analog instruments, which make them highly resistant to external Cylon electronic attack as they do not transfer digital signals. As with other battlestar systems, the mainframe hardware remains susceptible to internal Cylon electronic attacks (viruses and logic bombs that infect and transfer from other systems).
This computer is mentioned briefly by Lt. Gaeta after an incident where the effects of a Cylon logic bomb confused the environmental computer into venting the firing range room of its pressure, almost killing Kara Thrace, Lee Adama and Brendan Costanza (Flight of the Phoenix).
The environmental computer is likely connected to the nearly one-dozen carbon dioxide air scrubbers throughout Galactica, which remove the excess levels of the gas before it reaches toxic levels (Final Cut).
The Colonial Fleet relied initially on primitive, hard-wired avionics in its early fighters, but later reverted to more "fly-by-wire" technologies, one of which sealed the doom of billions of citizens.
Vipers and Raptors
The older and generally-obsolete Viper Mark II fighters have a more primitive avionics package, but unlike CNP-equipped Viper Mark VIIs and Raptors, these old-style Viper systems (a design similar to that used in the Cylon War) appear to combine hydraulics  with a basic computer and DRADIS subsystem that is effectively immune from Cylon electronic counterattack.
Both Vipers are equipped with a multi-functional display that can can be set to various modes, such as DRADIS, navigation, engines, system status and weapons.
The flight systems of these systems also likely include these components, which vary in availability or degrees of complexity depending on the craft's age or purpose:
In the case of modern (pre-holocaust) spacecraft, many of these systems were likely tied into (either as a software or firmware component) the tainted Command Navigation Program. Evidence for this is strong as Jackson Spencer's Mark VII Viper loses power, communications, flight control, DRADIS, and apparently ejection control after Cylon fighters "rooted", or counter-commanded his Viper to shut down, thanks to the backdoors installed in these modern avionics packages (Miniseries).
Galactica prohibits computerized landings, so all pilots perform manual approach and landings in non-combat situations. No information has been given in the series if Mark II Vipers are capable of auto-landings in the manner that Mark VIIs demonstrate (Miniseries).
Cylon avionics contain biological elements, some of which include or are interfaced with quasi-sentient elements.
Cylon Raiders contain some level of avionics that co-exist amidst the biological components that form the "pilot" within the fuselage of the fighter. Kara Thrace identifies the mechanical linkage within a captured fighter, and Galen Tyrol's team identifies the fire control, navigation, and FTL drive components in addition to an actual avionics package (Flesh and Bone). Galactica flight crews later rigged a flight control console that mated with the Raider's avionics for human readability.
The Cylons moved to biomechanical pilots rather than using Centurions or other robotic pilot for three probable reasons:
Raiders are capable of independent thought, which is demonstrated during the Battle of the Ionian Nebula, where one identifies Samuel Anders as a humanoid Cylon. This causes all other Raiders to break off the attack and forces the Cylon fleet to retreat (He That Believeth In Me).
The interior of a Heavy Raider, or its cockpit, have not been revealed. While no information is available as to the nature of their avionics and piloting requirements, events suggest that the Heavy Raider is not an autonomous or quasi-autonomous vehicle (Fragged", "The Farm", "Home, Part I") .
Cylon spacecraft avionics can be affected by infiltration with the right methods. The cooperative Cylon infiltrator copy of Sharon Valerii used herself as a backdoor to send a version of a Cylon virus to shut down power to a massive Cylon fleet en route to attack Galactica (Flight of the Phoenix). It was not shown whether the biologics of the Cylon Raiders are themselves affected by this unexpected infiltration from Valerii.
The organic nature of most Cylon cybernetics is also susceptible to classic human pathogens, which can cause massive and catastrophic system failure. The infection that caused a basestar to succumb (Torn), according to other Cylons investigating the incident, has a bioelectric nature that could cause it to behave more like programming, allowing the downloaded personalities of infected agents to infect the entire Cylon race via the Resurrection Ship.