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The Adamas' marriage was challenging from the start, as William Adama was often reassigned from base to base.
Her father was friends with an important member of the Defense Subcommittee; it was partly through this connection that her husband was able to reinstate both himself and Saul Tigh in the Colonial Fleet after their post-war furlough (TRS: "Scattered"). Since William returned to the Fleet twenty-three years before the events of the Miniseries (Sources:Adama's Dossier), it stands to reason that he and Carolanne were married some time before that.
Due to William's commitments to the Colonial Fleet, Carolanne raised both children by herself. The strain of William's absence and his commitment to the Colonial Fleet caused the Adamas' eventual divorce.
Carolanne suffered mood swings that upset the others in her family, according to her oldest son, Lee. Later drinking binges after the divorce prevented her from fulfilling (and later apologizing for) promises she failed to keep. Lee Adama believed that, while his father loved his mother, the reverse was not true (TRS: "A Day in the Life").
It is presumed that Carolanne Adama perished in the Cylon attack. William Adama takes the occasion of his wedding anniversary each year to recollect his late ex-wife's memory (TRS: "A Day in the Life").